1976

Shehovtsov Alexey Mitrofanovich


Zhilovsky Victor D.


Anatoly A. Baranowski


Saulov Nicholas Korneyevich


Sikorskaya Galina


Andrew I. Belko


Klimov Mikhail Trofimovich


Bamuratov Aslon


Kolzhanova Mubin Darakulovna


Baymagambetov Denbergen


Shakyarov Kudrat Abasali oglu


Baysobaeva Kulgaky


Koolmeyster Elvey Iohannesovna


RELIC PROFESSION

Kartsev Dmitry Gavrilovic

Blacksmith-puncher Gorky Automobile Plant, Hero of Socialist Labor

Kartsev Dmitry Gavrilovic At the Gorky Automobile Plant are born "Volga", "Seagull", trucks, ambulances, all-terrain vehicles ...

This plant is very modern. But not in the sense in which modern VAZ, KamAZ, created in recent years and equipped with the latest technology.

New development is always a favorite of his time. And the gas was in the privileged position, but that has passed more than forty years. Over four decades ago on the banks of the Oka, on the site squalid villages Monastyrka half-starved, zyabnuvshie by evil winds enthusiasts the first five years and the auto giant built a new city.

In this country of a big deal put all the new and the best that science and technology has created in those years. About GAZ poet Demian Poor folded lines: "No building, and a flurry of creativity! Tale of iron and concrete! "

Alas, even the stories getting old. Aging naturally and automaker GAZ. But it never gets old products! For a long time already served his "Emki", "Pick-GAS", an old truck design, as living fossils in some places show "Victory." A gate of the Gorky Automobile Plant, almost every year in the life of the car out of new models, not inferior to world standards. The fact that the current production of GAZ meet modern standards, shows that the plant does not give the time, he knows the secret of youth.

At every step we see as the future grows through the past, struggling with it for the right to live. Plant as it exists in two time dimensions. There are shops that give an idea of the new plants buduschego.Eto handsome cast, where the machines are boiled and poured metal, make him the details. There are a lot of air and little people. The line runs from the button is pressed, followed by machinery student's record-book multiple adjusters. Impressive and truck engine assembly line, stretched nearly a kilometer pipeline, and see how the mechanism collects a mechanism-an amazing sight! This marks the future.

But there are sites like the old foundry, which brings us back to those years when the plant could not afford anything else, except for those dark, smoky, as if soaked in the fire areas.

These contrasts, this agony of light and shadow, the background against which clearly shows how the plant itself moves from past to future.

He-like walking tree. There is a tree species that are not standing still, the old roots die off, new stems grow to one side, and the trees are like walking on the ground.

In this tense march into the future the present acute GAS. In this and the main difficulty. The plant has to think not only about the direct-release of his business vehicles, but also to update the means of production. This entails material costs, the gap between workers in the building, to meet the challenges of reconstruction. The power plant in the tradition. For more than forty years of life of the plant has brought people with all their interests committed to him. These people know the problem, the specifics of the needs of the plant for many years. Together with these people mature and traditions, without which the gas would not be able to lead such a hard struggle with time.

One such tradition-school blacksmiths, glory and pride of GAZ.

***

In September 1935, Alexander Haritonovich Busygin, a man of athletic build and extraordinary perseverance, accomplished a feat which has become a legend. During one shift, he and his team forge crankshafts for the 966 truck GAZ-AA instead of the norm of 675. But this is not surprising ended. Summaries of the forge continued to hit the Gorky Automobile Plant: 1008 ... 1015 ... 1030 ... 1050 trees!

And the day came when Busygin reported to the name of the team: a shift in just one day in 1146 the team forge crankshafts, responsible, capricious, complex parts car.

The work of a blacksmith was always considered one of the most difficult. And even the invention of the steam hammer did not do this job easy. At the time Busygina furnace did not work on gas and electricity, as now, and fuel oil. Nevertheless, the feat has continued.

Creative thought gazovskih blacksmiths contributed to alleviating a lot of work in the blacksmith shops, while still working here, the true heroism.

In the high boots and a helmet covering the face, people in the glow of the fire-breathing furnaces seem to be shadows, and their movements, light and quiet. During the cannonade the hammers will not hear of any steps or words. Yes, blacksmiths and not talking. Understand each other's gestures, looks.

And their movements seem to be relaxed because the efforts of people seem insignificant in comparison with spring power hammer.

One of the workers grabs a red-hot pincers metal disc from the window of the oven. Another deftly catches it and puts this blinding eye piece of the sun on the steam-hammer punch. And should the thunder-seven tons of malleable metal raining down on to give it the desired shape.

And now somebody removes the finished product, and pulls him aside, puts in a number of others in a neat pyramid-red glow of the newly born crankshaft dims, and the pyramids asleep almost cooled, accustomed to the look and color of the details of the future car.

- Kartsev admire?-I do not immediately hear the question addressed to me.

- Kartsev? Who is he?-For singles with Dmitry Gavrilovich Kartsev, delegate to the XXV Congress of the Party. Hero of Socialist Labor, the "king" gazovskih blacksmiths and I came into this tseh.-Where is he?

- In the hammer, of course. He was the foreman. the remaining nine of his team-.

I take a closer look into the silhouette of a man working near the hammer in a hail of sparks. Now I can see that the woman did not hammer itself falls on a stamp-Kartsev foot presses the pedal, and only if the mass in motion, and between beats Kartsev deft and almost imperceptible movement of his hand corrects and turns blank. Do not hammer, and the man with the hammer shapes the piece. And now I see that in one case, he makes five or six strokes, and in another, more in the third or lower. A foreman decides when the item is ready. This is a responsible decision-shaft weighs 50 kilograms, in the case of a failed marriage, forming a solid.

A man with a hammer works in unremitting stress - almost every half minute from the line coming off the shaft ready. So, every half minute smith wielded over trehpudovoy workpiece. Interestingly, sdyuzhili be a famous weightlifters, weight lifters, not occasionally, but all day long?

- Well, how impressive?

I thought just the opposite. Broke down my ideas on the shape of a blacksmith, a kind of hero, under a Busygin and others, former lawmakers profession. Kartsev elegant, like a sixteen-year swimmer! How he managed to beat the veterans, provides a double-compared with Busigin performance as the maximum production achieved in the industry roll-it is considered almost the most technical master of crankshafts?

***

When twenty-two years ago in the shop appeared frail, not very tall guy Dima Kartsev, few imagined that he was delayed for a long time here. And certainly no one thought that he will become the successor of the traditions gazovskih blacksmiths.

Looks like he was on his famous predecessors, except that the biography. They all came to the plant from the village. And Busygin thought to save some money, and return to the village, home supply, will lead the family.

And Dima Kartsev wandered here by accident. He came to see his older brother, the other brothers and sisters can not get those in Sverdlovsk, who is in the North Caucasus, who are scattered in the Donets Basin ... War Kartsev family in different directions. Survivors of the Nazi invasion, Kartseva shared all of the events of life to "pre-war" and "after." Dima "before" was a happy, carefree childhood. Like all the village boys, he had heard the urban labor: it is necessary to get up early to be carried out in a herd of cows, to coach the water, feed the pig, the garden watered, but the weed povydergat.

Kartsev Dmitry Gavrilovic Life has just begun Dima is not turned to him and nine, when left to defend the homeland men sat with their older brothers Dima.

The enemy had burned the village Greedy Kursk region, it was the birthplace of Dima Kartseva, and he, along with fellow villagers gave shelter to the ground, took refuge in dugouts, dugouts. Kursk-Orel died down battle dawn broke victory. They began to think about life. To revive the farm, to recover, it is possible to give hungry people food, it was common dreams.

Kartseva amassed under the thatched roof cottage. They began to live. The house was illuminated by a wick, tucked in a bowl with gasoline-who of post-war does not remember this chadyaschie lamp? Gabriel Danilovich, Dima's father, the chairman of the kolkhoz, had lunch with her daughters, Nadia and Vera.

Hooked up the wick. His father was pour petrol-bombing. Spray soaked tunic. And then the roof caught fire. I rushed to put out on him, broke his tunic. Buried, beat him then 57 years ...

The war began when Dime was nine, came to an end, and he has like an adult. It is necessary to obtain a specialty. Entered the artisan - began working on the construction of tall buildings in Moscow. Bright and active boy did Komsomol organizer, helped end the night school. Sent to study further.

But again, the trouble-ill mother. He left home.

So Dima appeared in Gorky's older brother, he became a father. While some decided to poslesarit Gorky automobile. It was the 1955 th year.

It happened that I had to replace a sick worker in the blacksmith shop. Dima instructed to heat the beam front axle of the truck. Managed. Placed on the crankshaft. A shaft-or fifty pounds! This is the time Busygina shafts were dvadtsatikilogrammovye. Others were machine-other engines more powerful than the former. When a change in Kartsev stood Ivan Povelikina-thought ill. The legs are weak, nauseated, my head was buzzing. But the guy knew the difference between "want" and "right" ...

Did then give it serious business? What is now anyone's guess. Important to understand what forces have detained him at the fire-breathing hammer?

On that day, the team exceeded Povelikina day job and a half times! And it was Dima's contribution in this regard.

Perhaps an important role in the decision to become a blacksmith Dima was the fact that in one shift worked with him a great master blacksmith Aref I. Ognev, intelligent, energetic man, who played in the life of Kartseva an important role. Complicated thing, rivalry. Name Ogneva thundered at meetings, in print, the plant was proud of him. Not an example of a Ogneva "infected" Kartseva? Twenty years have worked side by side and Ognev Kartsev. First, in one shift, then a different, but at the same hammer. Ognev Kartsev and were among the initiators of the offering to compete in individual and brigade plans under the slogan: "More production, less than the cost!" When the plant a new wave of struggle for the plan, fire and Kartsev first supported the new initiative: "Not Left Behind next door! "

When Ognev became a Hero of Socialist Labor, a young knight-Kartsev Order of Lenin.

At the brigade Kartseva it was possible to rely on. And it is indeed "holding" the smithy. She was awarded an honorary prize named after Hero of Socialist Labor A. X. Busygina. For this honor fought 324 Brigade, kartsevskaya became the first recipient of October 6, 1976 the brigade Kartseva report on the completion of the plan the first year of tenth five-year period. And it gives reason to believe that the team will cope kartsevskaya and chief promise: the norm of Tenth Five completed a year earlier.

***

Kartsev not one of those people about whom one can say he is a born blacksmith, be it a blacksmith. No, he was a blacksmith in spite of their physical data.

About Dmitry Gavrilovic said that he brought to the faces of the profession of art, acting prudently, safely, and has a metal hammer. Kartsevskaya team works harmoniously the whole shift at the record (busyginskaya tradition!). Works in a constant rhythm when changing modes of obsolete equipment, the temperature in the furnace is constant and non-heated billet is not the one that varies the vapor pressure driving the hammer. This is an art.

- What is the secret of your skills, what are its feature if you have a method?-Ask Dmitry Gavrilovic.

- Each master its peculiarities. Style of blacksmiths as diverse as the style of riders, conductors ... One pulls a horse or an orchestra. Another runs quietly, but will showing. And a blacksmith. One runs quietly, the other in a hurry, shook his whole body, spends a lot of effort, exhaled, angry. One quickly grasps the essence of the changes, the other responds with a lag. On the crankshaft forging hammer blows used 8.9, so do almost all the blacksmiths. But each has his own hand of a blacksmith at work.

- It depends on intuition, instinct? After measuring instrument-mi you do not use?

- It happens like this: feel-something not happening. But in our case you can not wait to catch the fast-important cause, to fix a tool to determine the desired effect pedal.

I understand that Kartsev did not reveal any special tricks of the trade, unknown to anyone. But once he got more production, so he was able to raise a fist for focused actions all that is necessary for maximum results: and his skill, and ability to organize their own improvised line services, ie, in Kartsev, apparently, except the talent of a blacksmith even the gift organizer, educator, and just benevolence good friend. After all, without the support of the entire team, all nine smith is not an employee.

But still, I asked him, from which derives also reserve team resources to improve performance?

- Of course, we are very helpful, answered the Kartsev and management, and the party organization, and leadership workshops. The entire staff of the plant is interested in the outcome of the blacksmith's shop. A lot is being done to ensure that we have no need for the metal, our work is respected, not me alone-many blacksmiths awarded the title Hero of Socialist Labor. And besides, the reserves increase productivity in the most gang-laid, in a moral climate that Lee. After all, if a friend of the team, the work goes. I'm trying to guys worked well together, I try to help you understand the secrets of our craft, not to show if a bad mood. You know, sometimes it is important to not even notice if any of the guys went wrong ... Our work is very necessary to be a single organism.

Perhaps, Mr Gavrilovic answered to another question, which I have not voiced aloud explained by any moral force can constantly increase productivity, improve efficiency and quality in the shop, where the equipment is in fact little has changed with the times busyginskih. Here lives the spirit of the first Stakhanovite, the spirit of collectivism and comradely mutual assistance, the spirit of respect for the hard, honorable, very necessary work of a blacksmith.

- How do you teach your assistants?-Ask Dmitry Kartseva Gavrilovic.

He is responsible not srazu.-perhaps more than by his own example. I try to run smoothly, did not break, do not pull the guys.

In general I do everything to the team was like a family.

- And in terms of skills?

- There is no ready-made recipes. I can not tell the student: Beat-to nine strokes the shaft. On each shot, it's different. I try to develop his comrades in the brigade intuition, a sense of the process. I try to teach them the peace of mind and hard work, mutual respect for each other. If the team as a people, and the change takes place efficiently. Then in the evening at home with the kids can go in and read with colleagues around the plant to spend an evening. Yes, we often meet, who have a birthday, who is married, a child who was born ... Not all newcomers settle in our shop. Here nature is needed. But the people who stayed, reliable labor. Do you think I was just beginning when he went on record when competing plans offered red-handed? ..

- But, really, is the norm, rising, 'I can not stand.

- A rate increase of grain production?, Calmly parried Kartsev.-rise. A number of products, fabrics? You see, what we now go every day, and suits at work that is necessary, and leather shoes. And in what houses are now living? Furniture polish.

And how long have churned up the mud here in my boots, lived in barracks, stool, couch, that's the whole situation. I myself have brought in his wife Shura malehonkuyu small room, two steps sideways, three ahead. And now what we have flat, see?

There was a pause. I like everything Kartseva properly obtained, as in the novels they write. Many argue it happen?

- And what is there not to understand?-Spoke again Kartsev.-bread, textiles, machinery, all of the same thread svyazano.Esli the plans are not fulfilled, not overfulfilled, but not only us, all the workers throughout the country, we would not see today of life. And be something even better. From us because it all depends. Of course, there is a scum-behold films about life abroad, whine: there is ce. And you must work, but with the soul, and you will be even better. Our economy is, only sixty years old, and how much is done! If things do not be afraid to raise standards of living, to try all together, and whimperers work remains.

***

In the first hour of my stay in Gorky went into the hotel room and turning on the radio, I heard: Kartseva team has a new commitment, the 60th anniversary of Great October Socialist Revolution to perform the job two years of Tenth Five!

I think it is the obligation of blacksmiths, one of the reasons that enabled the plant to determine their socialist obligations, published in "Izvestia" January 9, 1977, make-to the glorious anniversary of the excess of the set 700 cars and trucks ...

Blacksmith shops ... hand-production shops, such as those that employ Kartsev and his comrades gradually give way to a modern, fully automated equipment. This is imperative. The volume of production. Increases and the weight of the engine, and consequently, the weight of the crankshaft. And Gorky Automobile Plant will come fully automated forging presses.

What kind of application will be valuable lessons learned by such virtuosos in their field, as Kartsev? Maybe all this will become redundant, not necessary in an age of machines, I think, but in time bethink. Do not try to master the skills to put them into the machine designers? How much trouble arose at the dawn of cybernetics, when scientists tried to use electronic computer to manipulate objects, the laws of behavior which are not clear until the end, are not described mathematically! For the machines failed to make a comprehensive program.

Then there was a thought-pay machine in the training of an experienced master.

Such a master, even without knowing all the laws, ruling over the process, manages them on the basis of their experience, years of practice work.

At first, the teacher helped the car to do the right "moves"-established regulators machine into position. A machine, comparing these passages with those in her program, make any necessary corrections.

Thus, under the direction of the master machine learned to manage the process.

If we assume that all the complex, labor-intensive processes will gradually be handed over to machines, there are outlines of a new activity for the production of skilled craftsmen: to share their experience and skill machines, help scientists to develop a program of action. In this case, no people with a bright individual talent, initiative, experience, without people like Kartsev, can not do.

All that has accumulated the necessary masters, but labor-intensive occupations is not lost. Will be transferred to machines that eliminates a person from the heavy part of the labor, leaving him only the creative area of work.

In this, the features of the future, optimistic signs of scientific and technological revolution.

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