1981

Zenaida V. Bondarenko


Mahmoud Muydinov


Adam-Yusupov Tyulegen Dyusembaevich


Alanya Lamar Estatovna


Gasimov Allman Farman oglu


Visotskis Eugenijus Kazevich


Buga Vera


Berzins Rita Mikelevna


Sydykova Muken


Abdullaeva Siporat


Markarian Grisha Sarkisovich


Eset Khamraev


Liiv Valery Rihardovich


GRANITE TABLET

Tolstoukhov Valentin R.

Brigadier drifters tunnel unit 12 construction management "Bamtonnelstroy" Hero of Socialist Labor

Tolstoukhov Valentin R. In Nizhneangarsk when I asked about Tolstoukhov, said he was in the tunnel. In Goudzhekit too: in the tunnel, complete finish.

Of course, Valentine Romanovich well known. Here his name is associated with all of any significant developments.

I did not suspect a trick. Finishing the tunnel is completed, and he was beginning the construction of an underground corridor, of course, and completes it. Easily reached the site where the finish came to an end on the last vault, is the latest m ...

- Tolstoukhov?-Smart guy in overalls bamovski is pushed to the back of the helmet, with a sly smile: - "Mozhno.-I cried, Eugene, you ..." I noticed the corner of my eye: watching what effect it will produce "Eugene." I really wondered: was something wrong.

Because of the formwork emerged a tall, slender young man.

- Tolstoukhov,-introduced. His eyes laughed mischievously, probably not the first "purchase" of journalists. I see, trying hard to be serious, but can not stand long, smiling amiably:

- Made a mistake, I guess. Go to your father? However, a good laugh. It turns out, Valentin R. flew to Cuba. Well, then. The joke is not malicious. Even a didactic sense in it. Here, on Davani, everyone knows that Valentine R. flew to Cuba. And so who knows, one can see, a newcomer to the BAM. And at the same time Tolstoukhov something here to work, though he still Zhenya. My father was away, the son remained shut case ... I walked along the road to the east. At this time, apparently, not to see Valentin Romanovich, leave it be over in a fortnight.

Almost semikilometrovy Baikal tunnel in the main completed. There is still a difficult job in difficult geological conditions. Especially Severomuisk tunnel. This construction, as scientists say, the first on the complexity of not only our country but around the world. Regular breaks rocks, quicksand, permafrost, the abundance of thermal waters of high pressure and high temperatures, all such claims filed by the builders, with which neither science nor practice has not yet met. Baikal was a sort of tunnel and experiment. In the Buryat area highway construction workers entered the dense virgin jungle of the taiga, indented by dozens of rivers and streams in the zone of permafrost, swamps, mountains and canyons gully ... And most importantly, the way blocked by powerful rocky ridges, unknown, capricious, with regular breaks, clogged with sand and turned into quicksand, over-saturated.

To track got life, you have to pass through these ranges of 27 kilometers. The first seven have already passed. Baikal is the first victory of the tunnel, the first tough test of a certificate of high skill, perseverance, courage.

On the east portal is already in the history of the first monument, a huge granite boulder. Its from the tunnel, as if cut with a scalpel at the first firing the famous Moscow metrostroevets Valentin Tolstoukhov.

For many years Tolstoukhov building the Moscow subway.

The man no longer young, his selfless work he earned honorable right to a quiet life. A recognized authority in the team metrostroevtsy, comfortable apartment in Moscow, a complete material well-being. What would seem to be more human. His wife teaches at the Moscow School and also earned and honor, and respect, the daughter of the institute, his son's time in college.

But no. BAM, construction of the century, haunted. He knew what difficulties and challenges to be overcome to builders of BAM. And kindly, paternal worried: how's the green youth will cope without these, as he accumulated wisdom of experience in the construction of the country.

- I ought to go, eh?, He often said Valentina Dmitrievne.-What do you think?

And what is there to think? Arguments would be enough to dissuade: what is all this stop-and Moscow, and the apartment. And the subway, too, need someone to build it. And it should be, because for so many years teaching at the school. Was used. Plans, intentions. A profile of the work there and a few other, if he finds his place. Technique, they say, the latest, sophisticated. A re-learn ... not young, you know.

But ... but ... Perhaps it is his main business, his finest hour. How to prevent it.

And then dared. In the spring of 1975 met in the old Soviet Union Glavtonnelmetrostroe his friend Vladilenom Savelievich Kaplan. Not a tunnel built during the long years of working together.

- Think. Such tunnels have no building, unique.

- I understand, only the chief engineer, and said management "Bamtonnelstroy" ...

In August of that year, with the first paratroopers landed in the dead of barren mountains Tolstoukhov Tracts Goudzhekit ... Taiga around, the wind is bad in autumn. No construction site and does not smell. Terrible, Dawan rocky, covered with bristly ephedra, frowns its inaccessibility.

Pitched a tent. Where is it, extra-renowned master-gornoprohodchiku, there is a job? Even vexed. From the case is gone, but what came. By the ax! I had to take up for him an unusual ancient instrument. Do not run the same again. Cut at home. Surround the village. Arrived people were included in the work of adapting to. The settlement was Goudzhekit really seem like a village. Then he began to equip and Dawan, gathered panel houses. Enough work to exhaustion, good people came, around-the taiga indescribable beauty. And he missed. Sometimes went to Davani, a wild, scary, kept going in his mind how to proceed with it. How, when?

But there came a period of time. Them ready brigade, the first of mining tunnel in the squad number 12. "Yes, what kind of team," at a loss, looking at the "green" kids Tolstoukhov. Good all rush to the cause, but do not know, do not know how. Not a sinker, only one miner Tamaz Thelidze. We have to learn. Since then, and started. I had the foreman, and a teacher and mentor, and almost become a professor. Learned how to drill, how to blow up "on the primer," as they say in the beginning.

Learned to read the project design document, mastered the mining heading mounting frame company "Furukawa". There is nothing complicated, cheering himself, and that we are worse than the Japanese, I suppose. The formation of the team, as they say, went on the run. Learned the discipline. This Tolstoukhov immediately put to the fore. It is said-all, period. Gore does not like jokes. Discipline is stricter than in the Navy. Have no right to make a mistake. Who does not fit, good-bye with regards. Understood it. And Tolstoukhov convinced, were the guys in the team are excellent. And looking ahead, say it was the backbone and the entire tunnel, no one is relaxed, not scared, are not migrated.

In mid-April, at last, ran into the approach, and then, in the transportation and drainage tunnel. This tunnel will parallel to the main tunnel and the operation will play a supporting role. A strategy for the construction must be intelligence and speed driving of the tunnel. Ahead of driving of the tunnel from the tunnel to the axis of the tunnel will make the sidebar to open yet another slaughter.

Until November, gave a course of tunnel from the east and has experienced both relocated to tie in the tunnel from the west-Shtolnya good school. But the present case, all the same tunnel. And so the brig waiting, prepared by the historic day.

March 17, 1977 at the eastern portal gathered sinker, builders, miners, truck drivers - all who were in Goudzhekit those at the cold morning. The frost was intense, somewhere around fifty noted. But not before it was to people. As the kinks rock marked with blue paint circuit tunnel. As the horseshoe. R. Valentin came to rock, to the drilling machine. Well, let the shoe will be happy.

- Well, folks! We start slowly, stone by stone, stone by stone ... and forth ...

Zakroshilas rock fragments flew. All gone. Come to centimeters, on and on. Day and night, day and night constantly excited and strict voltage, all the long four years.

Tolstoukhov Valentin R. From the very first meters Tolstoukhov convinced: yes, the ridge-tough nut to crack, the tunnel unique, these do not have to take it, though this is the thirtieth. Moody Ridge. Daunting to mining and geological structure, as it turned out, and then grasped by geologists, only to "rough." Nature bristled menacingly against violators of its mnogomillionnoletnego order. Foreseen and anticipated difficulties would be enough to call the facility daunting. Add another unexpected, everyday surprises. Nature is throwing all the cards, the seismic foci and landslides, and permafrost, ice and sand in the kilometer-long fractures. And water. How much trouble they have brought something hot under seventy degrees, the cold, at the limit of frost. Under tremendous pressure, they are sometimes swept away everything in its path. Yes, even the uniqueness of the Baikal tunnel that led him down the slope. And all the water was at the drifters.

I had to take Tolstoukhov and for the study of geology, both theoretically and practically know the nature of the ridge. Every day, the new focus. Valentin R. mobilized all his experience: it was a continuous slaughter, then lower, then the upper ledge. Had to maneuver every day. Tested all the available ways to bookmark holes. Explosives in the holes had to literally zatiskivat titanic efforts. Water thrown it as spit seeds. But the team found the master, with a jeweler's precision is mastered it.

On one of the party meetings Tolstoukhov raised the question of proper organization of labor, the introduction of new forms of accountability and competition. Then arose the so-called bamovskaya "santimetrovka." Before he put his kids first task-held meter a day.

The Japanese "Furukawa" in the hands of our masters began to work above their design capacity. In the first year instead of 350 linear feet of the project task team Tolstoukhov was 390 meters.

From the first days of next year the team ran into a severe fracture of rocks, sinking frame is literally stuck in quicksand, landslides and avalanches began. I had to use a new tactic, to put an arch. Work only under the canopy frame, or can not be started, "shootings." Nearly four months a team mired in quicksand, but when it got out, made up the time. For change were running 1.5 meters to 3 meters in 14 hours. Its annual program carried out, and in December, at the finish of the year, set the record were a full 85 meters tunnel section.

And moved steadily increasing rates of penetration. The guys in the team

increased. And not without pride, the foreman looked at them: what it means to lift the spirit, great goal, persistence in achieving it. But not only thought about it a communist Tolstoukhov, not only on its team, its formation, its glory. The tunnel should pass rate of speed is not alone. On the western portal to meet rubilas team headed by Yuri miner Bordachenko. Valentine liked this Romanovich cheerful and energetic person with strong character in mining. Even in the beginning, when mastered unit, and it had to be done as quickly as possible - Yuri Danilovich simply and openly asked Tolstoukhov:

- Help, Romanovich, a common cause, he masters us.

How could I not help? The miners have gornoprohodchikov anciently kept the law which authoritatively states that share the fire. Fire is now no need to share, missing him, but the meaning of the law was: share experience, skill, teach what he comprehended, friendly, brotherly.

And then he masters Tolstoukhov, and at the right time when it is not going well for George Bordachenko case for sinking, left his team and moved to the western portal.

Tolstoukhov team set up a counter on the clarity and stability to the cyclic-operation. Will bring the idea to support: a good idea in mind. A must-have undertaken to achieve. Egged miner's prestige. Taught to appreciate the time, constantly thinking about the acceleration cycle. To haul rocks at his insistence, imposed MOAZ, powerful trucks. Switched to overdrive rock from the ore yard. MOAZ Capacity-15 cubic meters. This immediately moved most time-consuming operation. Taught by five columns to drill immediately, without strumming.

When the "compressed" loop-holes charging, blasting and rock-haul up to 18 hours instead of 60 and reached a record 90 feet of penetration in the month, Tolstoukhov said: "Now we'll go after you, and you 100 without a doubt get down."

In the final year of tenth five-year period when the country embarked on the labor watch in honor of the XXVI Congress of the Communist Party, decided to do a through gornoprohodchiki sboyku Baikal tunnel to the February 23, the day of the congress. That was not enough to say, brave, it was a bold decision. Commitments are not amenable to any arithmetic mean "real" calculations. Still, no one knew with what provisions will be provided to accelerate penetration. But everyone here knew and believed, would be such an acceleration will sboyka in due time. A foremost authority tonnelschikov, Valentin R. Tolstoukhov, only saying, "Good line!" Earn "santimetrovka." "Lightning" month marked every step of the assault troops.

Confident, smoothly, clearly and thoroughly worked Tolstoukhov team, moved to centimeters to the west. Recklessly, with inspiring confidence made its way to the East squad combat youth Yuri Bordachenko. When a student teacher blocked the figures passing in June of 102 meters, Tolstoukhov sincerely glad. Congratulations to George, advised: "Do not get excited, worked quietly, watch for rears. Check that each was in its place. "

And he meticulously to detail, carefully watched, that "Furukawa" nothing needed to always have on hand spare rods, crowns, oil. Everything was subordinated to the rhythm, all support services needed to work in the style of Tolstoukhov. And should have been, and worked day in and day perfectly well providing a supply of energy, trouble-free haul rocks, water and ventilation.

Even before the finish, when the question: who to the last, honorable blasting,-no, of course, did not dispute this Tolstoukhov have bragging rights, but he is blessed to record Yuri Bordachenko, he and his boys need it. 138 meters of the tunnel area of 120 square meters, this still did not know the world practice! It was a brilliant victory Bordachenko team.

It was a victory for Moscow and the Communist metrostroevtsy Valentine Romanovich Tolstoukhov. And then came the hour of the Hero. February 6, 1981, exactly a year before the project period and for 17 days before the term of the obligation assumed in honor of the XXVI Congress of the CPSU, the Baikal tunnel was made sboyka, and I want to say "docked", as it is in space. Many here in common, similar and complexity of work, and its intensity. Yes, and on the risk! Needless to say, no matter how carefully thought out security measures, not just uchtesh not foresee at the first meeting with the unexplored forces of nature.

Deep in the granite Davan, at the very center of the brigade met the mountain pioneers. Separated from the long-awaited meeting drifters only a thin curtain, granite bridge. So thundered the last victory salute at the Baikal tunnel explosion smahnuvshy curtain divided the team.

Has not yet subsided deaf rumblings of an explosion, not the dust had settled in the fault, as the sinker ran into each other's arms. For four years they went to this long-awaited meeting. Strong hands, victory was achieved, was picked up and highly Tolstoukhov tossed to the corpus of the tunnel, which began from that moment reading his biography.

Yuri Bordachenko raised his hand, demanding attention. Breaking with emotion solemnly declared:

- Today, comrades, at six-Union Radio informed that our friend and mentor Valentine Romanovich Tolstoukhov awarded the high title of Hero of Socialist Labor!

And once again conquered the mountain roared the bowels of the Siberian mountain range, the mighty "Hurrah," praising his character and the winner ...

***

Straight from the granite rock, a kind of monument to the creators of the Baikal tunnel jewelry Tolstoukhov cut from the ridge, going on the highway. There, at the end of the Buryat region of BAM, the master key highway, the main nerve of her, of North-tunnel.

In describing it, the head of "Bamtonnelstroy" Vladimir Aslanbekovich Bessolov told me at the meeting:

- All that was-this is a story with her and then dismantled, and the future, even

I would say that the fate of North-BAM-a. Compared to the tunnel of North-Baikal seems to be a rehearsal. We must pass 15 kilometers 300 meters in difficult conditions, harsh, treacherous mountain range. There is now the best technology, best people ...

I was lucky. Companion is better and you can imagine. We drive on the highway with the manager of the trust "Nizhneangarsktrasstroy" Hero of Socialist Labor Felix Vikentievich Khodakovskii. He began the northern Trans-Siberian Railway from scratch. The story of BAM get what is called a first-hand ...

Seven years have passed since the release of the CPSU Central Committee decree "On the construction of the Baikal-Amur Railway." Done a great job. In permafrost, swamps, taiga wilderness, crossing the track of the numerous rivers and streams, the mighty unexplored mountain ranges of the builders laid for about three thousand kilometers of ways. BAM is built and running. Come on freight trains to Severobaikalsk, stretching his quarters on the banks of "glorious sea", is built port. Along the route laid road, over the taiga stretched its wires transmission line.

We construct the station and towns unfolded vigorous development of the zone of infinite riches of Siberia, adjacent to the highway. Already in operation, many objects of the construction industry, factories, repair of road construction equipment, trucks, heavy trucks, oil depots, runways ...

For Nizhneangarsk temporary highway to the limit-loaded stream of goods to the east, race great and easy to move Magirus, smartly run tractors, various types are motor. To open the through traffic on the BAM is still much to do.

The road goes along the track, around the wooded hills. Almost every kilometer-bridges. How many of these rivers and streams!

- Only part of Buryat BAM we have to build 600 bridges - explains Felix Vikentievich-but all along the route we have to put more than a thousand culverts. The cloth should be laid now at a good pace, have learned, in the year almost 300 kilometers. But it will contain the tunnels. Especially Severomuisk.

So far, among the scholars are divided: Is it possible at all to break through this most difficult of the geological structure of the ridge. The case is now in tonnelschikami.

Kichera passed. Fairy-tale town, a cozy, sunny, fantastic. Another seventy miles through the station have already emerging Dzelindu, Keron Ango-up. Puteukladchiki has stepped in Angoyu. Everything is going according to plan and successfully fulfilled the targets, will soon reach the railway and Severomuisk. And here ... Will it come a tunnel in time? Work has begun on the construction of bypass roads 40gradusnym rise. But this is a half measure. The main thing, of North-tunnel. This is truly a golden key of the northern Trans-Siberian Railway. And because it is the largest on the entire length of the track, and the complexity of its structure, such laborious construction projects were not, and there will not be on the BAM, and for the many millions of rubles, which is invested in it.

The penetration of the main trunk is still four face: from the western and eastern portals of the depth of the ridge of the third vertical shaft, punched from the top of the mountain on the axis of the tunnel, and with sboyki of transport and drainage tunnel that runs parallel to the main corridor.

Range of North-mighty bastion was in the way of drifters. He opposes Permafrost man, seismicity, granite expanse faults break the powerful technique of soft ligature sand. And, of course, the ground water. It is these waters and stopped tonnelschikov for two whole years on the west portal.

While the assault on the ridge is only from the east, and lead him the best, guard force, "Bamtonnelstroy" eleventh-tested sinker tunnel group.

Prior to the east portal on a granite pedestal stands truck-tractor. He is set to honor the pioneers made their way here through the taiga and swamps.

The valley is a lovely village Severomuisk rose, stretched in the middle of the taiga, on the banks of mountain rivers incessant Okusikan. There tonnelschiki and live here and work. East Portal, a stone's throw from the village.

Together with the secretary of the party bureau eleventh tunnel Roman Alexandrovich Ishakov squad headed for the slaughter. Almost a kilometer deep into the mountain range sinker main tunnel, and ahead is a transport and drainage gallery.

The semi-darkness in the tunnel, but clearly visible, concrete formwork saga. Is in full swing concreting of walls and vaults. Squelching under our feet, top to "drip". Hot water, some sources reach a temperature of 50, even 70 degrees. In winter and summer, you can work naked to the waist, which many do.

As soon as Walker got out of the tunnel, fell into a stream of icy water. Bredesh knee-deep in water as on a mountain river, the water rushes, roars.

- Here is the contrast baths-tempered, Iskhakov-joking, but still, mineral springs come across. Dobrel to lapel.

- Then began a new face, with the gallery came to the axis of the tunnel, it Tolstoukhov go to the third barrel. It is great to unwind, feel the experience and acumen workshop.

- So he's in Cuba? He has a vacation.

- Flew a direct flight "Havana Severomuisk."

So suddenly and there was our meeting ...

We spent the evening in a small hotel - the original tower-Mansion. Tenants-only three. Two student-intern and he was a Hero of Socialist Labor, Valentin R. Tolstoukhov. In sports suit, he looked very young, can not say that he was over fifty. The fair-haired, light-eyed, just to win the affability and preventative care. A pleasant companion, inquisitive and mnogoznayuschy. Later in the interview he says:

- I love books. As for employment ... A man and should be taken. One does not interfere. Yes, it is his position in life. It was during the storming of the Baikal tunnel he had finished eleven classes. In no way wanted to keep up with the boys of his brigade. Yes, and always felt an inner need for knowledge. As a child did not have to learn how many children of the war generation, he left school to take on their shoulders, men's work. Father Roman Fedorovich fought in the Baltic and died somewhere on the submarine. Even the grave is not a sailor. But to the mother's grave every year goes to the village Tolstoukhov Solonuhinu Kirov region. Sooner is gone, so now would be to live life hard worker collective. Not an easy share has fallen sailor's widow. Three children in their arms. The son from an early age became an assistant, the breadwinner of the family. A little grown-worked on the tractor.

After the army, where he served in military intelligence, came on an appeal in Metrostroy, it needed strong guys. And building a long tunnel. Do not deem as he walked kilometers outside Moscow.

Sparingly about himself Tolstoukhov. He worked, precise, well. Order of Lenin, the Order "Badge of Honor" medal, that's a noble job evaluation metrostroevtsy Moscow.

- Under the earth can somehow work. Bowels not like sloppiness, once they came to conquer, then be prepared for anything.

In the tunnel of North-especially should be careful to provide all the details. And on another Tolstoukhov responsible for the youth team, basically no skill, experience and intuition.

- A sense should be. I've always felt the mood of the breed, its tension. Sometimes can not explain why, but somehow I feel the danger. At Lake Baikal, I knew every inch of every step. You go down, one eye, the other up. You know, on what side of the pass. There is constant shooting of rocks. Dangerous to go out of the visor. One day, if someone gave the signal, I'm struggling neighbor hit and flew off with a meter and a half. And at the same moment a huge boulder crashed into the place where we had just stood. Frankly, I thought this will end the tunnel ... all. Under the land will no longer go down ...

Formally, he had such a right. Years went out, and you can go on a holiday. No one would have blamed: in his life, he did so much that you can relax.

But that's behind the Baikal tunnel. And he is already thinking about a new reality, "as without it." How not to use the produced work experience.

Could not resist, do not even go home, right here from Cuba, in Severomuisk. Gave a new team.

On the former fellows of his brigade, he said with enthusiasm:

- Four years together. On a rolling basis, seven days a week, and day and night, day and night. Carried a huge tension. Count on a face-to three kilometers have thousand cycles. Otpalit, load rock to take out. For the cycle must be drilled fifty meters, and the Boers under the pressure of flying like a cannon. A thousand times to fifty meters. This must be drilled. And how much water had to be pumped, if taken over one hundred and sixty cubic meters per hour so multiply by four years! Guys just golden. With them will go Severomuisk, whatever may have been tricky. Now they're finished, foremen, were such a school, some never get through.

He is ready to talk about them a lot and generously. Victor Justus, Gennady Kuznetsov, Thelidze, Shatirashvili, Osipov, Mukhamedov, Krushinsky ... His wise counsel and his father's strict demands contributed to the formation of these people are bamovski persistent and strong.

- On various talk of North-tunnel. Many scientists are skeptical that you can get it at all ...

- Let's go, calmly replied, Tolstouhov. Now we must not think about, but as soon as a better and cheaper to do it.

For several days he had already entered the business, has already said that rail haulage breed is not suitable, should immediately extend the lodge and go on overload. It takes two to three MOAZ. This will speed up the work. Indeed, until the breed from the face not clean, can not work. In the two times can be accelerated charging slaughter. This is the skill, and he will teach him. There, on the Baikal, and a half hours charged, and here until three ...

- Let's go through the tunnel, after a pause, added, Valentin R.,-in-time pass. From tonnelschikov will not be delayed, we will provide your site to the through movement of trains on the BAM had already begun in this five-year period, as discussed at the XXVI Congress of the Communist Party ...

Less than a year from that memorable meeting, as Tolstoukhov proved that he never makes rash statements. In June this year at the site of North-East Tunnel held a solemn meeting to mark the victory of the brigade of Hero of Socialist Labor Valentine Romanovich Tolstoukhov, setting a new all-union record. A month had passed 171.5 m main tunnel. These results have no one sought to ...

In a short time, Valentin R. introduced its technology. The cycle of penetration was reduced to 15 hours, and on some days he spent over 10 hours. During this time frame should fit the rig to the bottom, drill holes 160, 400 kilograms of explosives lay, aiming to blast the rock and roll. All this is done as quickly as possible, in better than even the Baikal tunnel.

Introduced Tolstoukhov and its "innovation." The breed is reloaded after an explosion in a powerful MOAZ, not as it was before, when the narrow gauge railway track pulled to the bottom.

- I think that the tunneling speed can be increased up to 180 meters per month - said at a rally VR Tolstoukhov-but, more importantly, we found that in any part of North-tunnel, using our technology, we can consistently take place over the last month 120 - 130 meters ... About five kilometers of the tunnel in total has passed. And there is, perhaps, is now beyond any doubt that the tricky and complex range of North-be conquered. And the pace of proposed Tolstoukhov, encouraged - to be performed within the tunnel, scheduled XXVI Congress of the CPSU.

- Let's go through the tunnel, have fun at the meeting said Valentin R., remembering our last farewell conversation - in time pass. Through the movement of trains on the BAM will begin in the five-year period.

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